Plenary paper given by John Higgins at the TESOL Convention, New York, March 1991, reprinted in the *CAELL Journal* 2, 2, Summer 1991, p. 3 – 7 and in *Computers in English Language Learning*, Intellect Press, 1995.

In the aftermath of the [first] Gulf War (February 1991) an Iranian who worked for the BBC was interviewed during a news bulletin. When the newscaster asked him what he thought was happening in Iraq, he said ‘Saddam is using the remaining of his army to quell the rebellion.’ This is a good illustration of the way in which, to some extent, we invent language rather than learn language from other people. There is no way in which that Iranian, fluent English speaker as he was, could have learned On the same day I met some students for a tutorial, and we talked about this form. In the first place we wondered what the analogy process was; what correct English pattern was the progenitor of the incorrect
and of subject usage:
There was also one citation which was totally ambiguous between subject and object analysis:
The -INGS phrases exhibited the same subject/object contrast, with the following which were clearly subject patterns:
and the following which were object patterns:
It seemed to us that
or a noun phrase:
or a clause:
What a lot of different ways of saying the same thing! In what kind of textbook or reference book will you find a list of the grammatically acceptable encodings of that concept, let alone any warnings about the ungrammatical encodings? ## ParaphraseWhich brings me to Appendix A, a document which you may find rather hard to read. It contains nothing except 555 paraphrases of the sentence JIM HATED SCHOOL BECAUSE THE TEACHERS WERE UNKIND. I put it together one afternoon when I had been reading a book by Terence Langoenden and Paul Postal called The 555 paraphrases, by the way, do not exhaust those possible. Given a full day, I think I might easily turn them into 2000. That would probably exhaust me, but I don't suppose there ever comes a point at which one could say with certainty ‘There are no other ways to express this notion’. In that sense paraphrase is infinite. Of course you could argue over the definition of paraphrase. Not all of these sentences could replace each other in all contexts; some are marked for emphasis or contrast. But all of them, I believe, would be just about acceptable as translations of I have suggested that each of my sentences could be an acceptable translation of a French sentence. What that in turn implies is that there are probably as many translations of the sentences into French as there are paraphrases in English. Indeed it was an observation to this effect that got me going, taken from a description of a translation exercise program called LITTRÉ: LITTRÉ contains no prepared list of questions and anticipated answers, correct or incorrect. Instead, for a given source sentence in English, the program consults a database consisting of a tree structure on four levels in which can be found, in theory at any rate, every possible target sentence that will translate the source sentence into French. The number of possible target sentences is, obviously, quite large: in fact for a straightforward four or five line sentence it can run to several thousand million. (Farrington 1986: 200). |
People find that last figure quite hard to believe, but if I can without strain find 555 paraphrases of an 8-word sentence, then several thousand million paraphrases of a 50- to 60-word sentence is reasonable. That is the outcome of what is called the combinatorial explosion, the same effect that tells us that the number of possible games of chess is ungraspably large. The combinatorial explosion uses a small repertoire of variation to generate vast numbers of different but similar phenomena. All of those uncountably many chess games are different from each other but they are all chess games; none of them is a game of football or a fried egg. Similar my 555 paraphrases represent just a single message, a minute part of the repertoire of possible messages. Language at large is vast; what a pity that the content of courses and textbooks is so tiny. To a new learner of a foreign language this phenomenon of paraphrase, if noticed at all, must seem extraordinarily inefficient. Why has Mother Language showered us with so many ways of expressing meanings? Why not just supply us with a code, a one-to-one set of correspondences between messages and utterances? In effect that is what new learners think they are learning, a code. They learn some greetings, some true statements to describe themselves, some ways of eliciting information from others. Paraphrase is not among their aims, and the conventional wisdom of syllabus-compiling rejects it too, using the term cover or Learning a language usually starts by being a struggle, but there comes a point at which a learner begins to take control. This is the stage at which grammar is no longer the barbed wire on which you scratch yourself as you endeavour to convey a fresh message but rather the means to express an infinity of meanings in a multiplicity of ways. With some learners reaching this stage is a sudden event, what I call the watershed effect. It is something which Peace Corps volunteers have reported to me, waking up one morning with the feeling ‘I’ve got hold of this language now’. It has happened to me on one occasion among my eight attempts at learning foreign languages, though not with the languages I learned from conventional school courses and which, even now, I speak most confidently. It seems that the circumstances most likely to produce an observable watershed effect are a few weeks of intensive tuition and a few months of residence in the community, exactly the pattern of Peace Corps training. It is not a feeling of complete command, more an assurance that there will always be some way to express or interpret a meaning through paraphrase. It would, of course, be naive to assume that, if awareness of paraphrase coincides with reaching a more advanced stage of language control, the teaching of paraphrasing as a skill could accelerate the learning process. In the first place, there is no proven association yet; in the second there is no evidence of causality; in the third, it could lead to some awfully dull teaching. At the beginning of this academic year I set one group of fairly advanced overseas learners the task of paraphrasing the JIM sentence. The ten members of the class found between two and eight well-formed paraphrases in three minutes, and the number they found correlated fairly well with my own estimate of their command of English. I was planning to offer the topic as a dissertation project (all these students are asked eventually to do a small piece of research) to find out whether open-ended paraphrase tasks can or should be used in assessing English. What held me back was a concern about the washback of the test on teaching. Suppose TOEFL were to adopt it and everybody suddenly demanded paraphrase classes. What a fate for English teachers! A more sensible approach would be to think about the circumstances in which command is most likely to be achieved quickly, as perhaps evidenced by the watershed effect. I suspect that the typical Peace Corps program, that sequence of intensive classwork and linguistic immersion has it about right. Immersion alone is inefficient. Classwork, too. What the combination offers is presentation of a system plus exposure to masses of authentic data. Motivation supplies the energy that cooks the dish. What is slowly becoming clear is that the most valuable contribution a computer can make to language learning is in supplying, on demand and in an organised fashion, masses and masses of authentic language. Authentic language is, by definition, anything not created by a teacher for the purpose of demonstrating language at work. By that definition the text of this talk is also authentic language and I expect to be adding it in due course to my own database of text to be searched, indexed and otherwise crunched by the various tools the computer has made available to me. The most powerful of these tools is the concordancer, which allows me to examine the contexts of any word which occurs in my data in order to test hypotheses. The person who has demonstrated most clearly the value of this work in language learning is Tim Johns of Birmingham, and I commend his work to you, especially the recently published special issue of the journal English Language Research (Johns and King, 1991). He has christened the approach data-driven learning, which can be abbreviated DDL and pronounced DIDDLE or DODDLE as you prefer. Learning English? It's a doddle. For myself concordancing probably accounts for well over half the computer work I do with my students. It occurs at unpredictable intervals, when some point of usage or grammar surfaces and somebody, usually but not invariably me, says ‘Let’s check it in the concordance’. The walls of my office and various classrooms have been festooned with KWIC (key-word-in-context) printout of A car journey which my wife and I took last year was enlivened by an argument over whether adjectives ending in * [This kind of search has now been greatly facilitated by modern software, and my own FINDWORD program, for instance, retrieves words by part of speech as well as spelling or pronunciation and would have made this search much more straightforward. (JJH, 2008)] This also shows up another vital facet of DDL; it is not dependent on interactive use of high technology equipment. The product of DDL is more often than not a long strip of paper which is taken away and pored over while the computer begins something new. Or it may be exercise material on paper that looks very like traditional exercises; the difference is that the source for every item is authentic text which can lead to great excitement as echoes of real meanings surface. DDL is really about asking questions; when you know that the answers are relatively easy to find, you ask more questions. A 386 machine and a CD ROM reader would make my searches much faster, so I look forward to the day when I can have them. [Funding for equipment in humanities departments was niggardly in those days.] Meanwhile I have not let that hold me back from using DDL. The way I use it, though, probably reflects my personal taste for puzzles and games, for combinations and lists. Computers for me are playthings, devices that let me play with language as if it were modelling clay. The authentic language is the fuel, the neglected element I referred to. Students I have taught have, at least some of the time, taken the same pleasure in playing with paraphrase and translation, word patterns and collocation as I have, which makes me content that I have not wasted the class time spent in these pursuits. Sensible practitioners always mix ’n match; eclecticism for me is not a dirty word. So, while I hope you may want to build some of what I have said into a method, please do not build a method out of what I have said. I have no wish to be known as the founder of ETP, English Through Play. Indeed I wonder which would be the worse outcome: to be so busy playing that you forget to communicate or to be so busy communicating that you forget to play. Think about it. |

*John Higgins
Revised, Shaftesbury, July 2014*.

Jim disliked school because the teachers were unkind. Jim hated school because the teachers were not kind. Jim disliked school because the teachers were not kind. Jim hated school because the teachers were cruel. Jim disliked school because the teachers were cruel. Jim hated school as the teachers were unkind. Jim disliked school as the teachers were unkind. Jim did not like school as the teachers were unkind. Jim hated school as the teachers were not kind. Jim disliked school as the teachers were not kind. Jim did not like school as the teachers were not kind. Jim hated school as the teachers were cruel. Jim disliked school as the teachers were cruel. Jim did not like school as the teachers were cruel. Jim hated school since the teachers were unkind. Jim did not like school since the teachers were unkind. Jim hated school since the teachers were not kind. Jim disliked school since the teachers were not kind. Jim did not like school since the teachers were not kind. Jim hated school since the teachers were cruel. Jim disliked school since the teachers were cruel. Jim did not like school since the teachers were cruel. Because the teachers were unkind, Jim hated school. Because the teachers were unkind, Jim disliked school. Because the teachers were unkind, Jim did not like school. Because the teachers were not kind, Jim hated school. Because the teachers were not kind, Jim disliked school. Because the teachers were not kind, Jim did not like school. Because the teachers were cruel, Jim hated school. Because the teachers were cruel, Jim disliked school. Because the teachers were cruel, Jim did not like school. As the teachers were unkind, Jim hated school. As the teachers were unkind, Jim disliked school. As the teachers were unkind, Jim did not like school. As the teachers were not kind, Jim hated school. As the teachers were not kind, Jim disliked school. As the teachers were not kind, Jim did not like school. As the teachers were cruel, Jim hated school. As the teachers were cruel, Jim disliked school. As the teachers were cruel, Jim did not like school. Since the teachers were unkind, Jim hated school. Since the teachers were unkind, Jim disliked school. Since the teachers were unkind, Jim did not like school. Since the teachers were not kind, Jim hated school. Since the teachers were not kind, Jim disliked school. Since the teachers were not kind, Jim did not like school. Since the teachers were cruel, Jim hated school. Since the teachers were cruel, Jim disliked school. Since the teachers were cruel, Jim did not like school. The teachers were unkind, and that was why Jim hated school. The teachers were unkind, and that was why Jim disliked school. The teachers were unkind, and that was why Jim did not like school. The teachers were not kind, and that was why Jim hated school. The teachers were not kind, and that was why Jim disliked school. The teachers were not kind, and that was why Jim did not like school. The teachers were cruel, and that was why Jim hated school. The teachers were cruel, and that was why Jim disliked school. The teachers were cruel, and that was why Jim did not like school. The teachers were unkind, which was why Jim hated school. The teachers were unkind, which was why Jim disliked school. The teachers were unkind, which was why Jim did not like school. The teachers were not kind, which was why Jim hated school. The teachers were not kind, which was why Jim disliked school. The teachers were not kind, which was why Jim did not like school. The teachers were cruel, which was why Jim hated school. The teachers were cruel, which was why Jim disliked school. The teachers were cruel, which was why Jim did not like school. The teachers were unkind, which meant that Jim hated school. The teachers were unkind, which meant that Jim disliked school. The teachers were unkind, which meant that Jim did not like school. Jim disliked school since the teachers were unkind. The teachers were not kind, which meant that Jim hated school. The teachers were not kind, which meant that Jim disliked school. The teachers were not kind, which meant that Jim did not like school. The teachers were cruel, which meant that Jim hated school. The teachers were cruel, which meant that Jim disliked school. The teachers were cruel, which meant that Jim did not like school. Jim hated going to school because the teachers were unkind. Jim disliked going to school because the teachers were unkind. Jim hated going to school because the teachers were not kind. Jim disliked going to school because the teachers were not kind. Jim hated going to school because the teachers were cruel. Jim disliked going to school because the teachers were cruel. Jim hated going to school as the teachers were unkind. Jim disliked going to school as the teachers were unkind. Jim did not like going to school as the teachers were unkind. Jim hated going to school as the teachers were not kind. Jim disliked going to school as the teachers were not kind. Jim did not like going to school as the teachers were not kind. Jim hated going to school as the teachers were cruel. Jim disliked going to school as the teachers were cruel. Jim did not like going to school as the teachers were cruel. Jim hated going to school since the teachers were unkind. Jim disliked going to school since the teachers were unkind. Jim did not like going to school since the teachers were unkind. Jim hated going to school since the teachers were not kind. Jim disliked going to school since the teachers were not kind. Jim did not like going to school since the teachers were not kind. Jim hated going to school since the teachers were cruel. Jim disliked going to school since the teachers were cruel. Jim did not like going to school since the teachers were cruel. Because the teachers were unkind, Jim hated going to school. Because the teachers were unkind, Jim disliked going to school. Because the teachers were unkind, Jim did not like going to school. Because the teachers were not kind, Jim hated going to school. Because the teachers were not kind, Jim disliked going to school. Because the teachers were not kind, Jim did not like going to school. Because the teachers were cruel, Jim hated going to school. Because the teachers were cruel, Jim disliked going to school. Because the teachers were cruel, Jim did not like going to school. As the teachers were unkind, Jim hated going to school. As the teachers were unkind, Jim disliked going to school. As the teachers were unkind, Jim did not like going to school. As the teachers were not kind, Jim hated going to school. As the teachers were not kind, Jim disliked going to school. As the teachers were not kind, Jim did not like going to school. As the teachers were cruel, Jim hated going to school. As the teachers were cruel, Jim disliked going to school. As the teachers were cruel, Jim did not like going to school. Since the teachers were unkind, Jim hated going to school. Since the teachers were unkind, Jim disliked going to school. Since the teachers were unkind, Jim did not like going to school. Since the teachers were not kind, Jim hated going to school. Since the teachers were not kind, Jim disliked going to school. Since the teachers were not kind, Jim did not like going to school. Since the teachers were cruel, Jim hated going to school. Since the teachers were cruel, Jim disliked going to school. Since the teachers were cruel, Jim did not like going to school. Jim hated his school because the teachers were unkind. Jim disliked his school because the teachers were unkind. Jim hated his school because the teachers were not kind. Jim disliked his school because the teachers were not kind. Jim hated his school because the teachers were cruel. Jim disliked his school because the teachers were cruel. Jim hated his school as the teachers were unkind. Jim disliked his school as the teachers were unkind. Jim did not like his school as the teachers were unkind. Jim hated his school as the teachers were not kind. Jim disliked his school as the teachers were not kind. Jim did not like his school as the teachers were not kind. Jim hated his school as the teachers were cruel. Jim disliked his school as the teachers were cruel. Jim did not like his school as the teachers were cruel. Jim hated his school since the teachers were unkind. Jim disliked his school since the teachers were unkind. Jim did not like his school since the teachers were unkind. Jim hated his school since the teachers were not kind. Jim disliked his school since the teachers were not kind. Jim did not like his school since the teachers were not kind. Jim hated his school since the teachers were cruel. Jim disliked his school since the teachers were cruel. Jim did not like his school since the teachers were cruel. Because the teachers were unkind, Jim hated his school. Because the teachers were unkind, Jim disliked his school. Because the teachers were unkind, Jim did not like his school. Because the teachers were not kind, Jim hated his school. Because the teachers were not kind, Jim disliked his school. Because the teachers were not kind, Jim did not like his school. Because the teachers were cruel, Jim hated his school. Because the teachers were cruel, Jim disliked his school. Because the teachers were cruel, Jim did not like his school. As the teachers were unkind, Jim hated his school. As the teachers were unkind, Jim disliked his school. As the teachers were unkind, Jim did not like his school. As the teachers were not kind, Jim hated his school. As the teachers were not kind, Jim disliked his school. As the teachers were not kind, Jim did not like his school. As the teachers were cruel, Jim hated his school. As the teachers were cruel, Jim disliked his school. As the teachers were cruel, Jim did not like his school. Since the teachers were unkind, Jim hated his school. Since the teachers were unkind, Jim disliked his school. Since the teachers were unkind, Jim did not like his school. Since the teachers were not kind, Jim hated his school. Since the teachers were not kind, Jim disliked his school. Since the teachers were not kind, Jim did not like his school. Since the teachers were cruel, Jim hated his school. Since the teachers were cruel, Jim disliked his school. Since the teachers were cruel, Jim did not like his school. Jim hated going to his school because the teachers were unkind. Jim disliked going to his school because the teachers were unkind. Jim hated going to his school because the teachers were not kind. Jim disliked going to his school because the teachers were not kind. Jim hated going to his school because the teachers were cruel. Jim disliked going to his school because the teachers were cruel. Jim hated going to his school as the teachers were unkind. Jim disliked going to his school as the teachers were unkind. Jim did not like going to his school as the teachers were unkind. Jim hated going to his school as the teachers were not kind. Jim disliked going to his school as the teachers were not kind. Jim did not like going to his school as the teachers were not kind. Jim hated going to his school as the teachers were cruel. Jim disliked going to his school as the teachers were cruel. Jim did not like going to his school as the teachers were cruel. Jim hated going to his school since the teachers were unkind. Jim disliked going to his school since the teachers were unkind. Jim did not like going to his school since the teachers were unkind. Jim hated going to his school since the teachers were not kind. Jim disliked going to his school since the teachers were not kind. Jim did not like going to his school since the teachers were not kind. Jim hated going to his school since the teachers were cruel. Jim disliked going to his school since the teachers were cruel. Jim did not like going to his school since the teachers were cruel. Because the teachers were unkind, Jim hated going to his school. Because the teachers were unkind, Jim disliked going to his school. Because the teachers were unkind, Jim did not like going to his school. Because the teachers were not kind, Jim hated going to his school. Because the teachers were not kind, Jim disliked going to his school. Because the teachers were not kind, Jim did not like going to his school. Because the teachers were cruel, Jim hated going to his school. Because the teachers were cruel, Jim disliked going to his school. Because the teachers were cruel, Jim did not like going to his school. As the teachers were unkind, Jim hated going to his school. As the teachers were unkind, Jim disliked going to his school. As the teachers were unkind, Jim did not like going to his school. As the teachers were not kind, Jim hated going to his school. As the teachers were not kind, Jim disliked going to his school. As the teachers were not kind, Jim did not like going to his school. As the teachers were cruel, Jim hated going to his school. As the teachers were cruel, Jim disliked going to his school. As the teachers were cruel, Jim did not like going to his school. Since the teachers were unkind, Jim hated going to his school. Since the teachers were unkind, Jim disliked going to his school. Since the teachers were unkind, Jim did not like going to his school. Since the teachers were not kind, Jim hated going to his school. Since the teachers were not kind, Jim disliked going to his school. Since the teachers were not kind, Jim did not like going to his school. Since the teachers were cruel, Jim hated going to his school. Since the teachers were cruel, Jim disliked going to his school. Since the teachers were cruel, Jim did not like going to his school. The unkindness of the teachers led to Jim's hating school. The cruelty of the teachers led to Jim's hating school. The teachers' unkindness led to Jim's hating school. The teachers' cruelty led to Jim's hating school. The unkindness of the teachers brought about Jim's hating school. The cruelty of the teachers brought about Jim's hating school. The teachers' unkindness brought about Jim's hating school. The teachers' cruelty brought about Jim's hating school. The unkindness of the teachers led to Jim's hatred of school. The cruelty of the teachers led to Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' unkindness led to Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' cruelty led to Jim's hatred of school. The unkindness of the teachers brought about Jim's hatred of school. The cruelty of the teachers brought about Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' unkindness brought about Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' cruelty brought about Jim's hatred of school. The unkindness of the teachers led to Jim's dislike of school. The cruelty of the teachers led to Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' unkindness led to Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' cruelty led to Jim's dislike of school. The unkindness of the teachers brought about Jim's dislike of school. The cruelty of the teachers brought about Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' unkindness brought about Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' cruelty brought about Jim's dislike of school. The unkindness of the teachers caused Jim's hatred of school. The cruelty of the teachers caused Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' unkindness caused Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' cruelty caused Jim's hatred of school. The unkindness of the teachers caused Jim's dislike of school. The cruelty of the teachers caused Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' unkindness caused Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' cruelty caused Jim's dislike of school. The unkindness of the teachers was the reason for Jim's hatred of school. The cruelty of the teachers was the reason for Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' unkindness was the reason for Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' cruelty was the reason for Jim's hatred of school. The unkindness of the teachers was the reason for Jim's dislike of school. The cruelty of the teachers was the reason for Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' unkindness was the reason for Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' cruelty was the reason for Jim's dislike of school. The unkindness of the teachers accounted for Jim's hatred of school. The cruelty of the teachers accounted for Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' unkindness accounted for Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' cruelty accounted for Jim's hatred of school. The unkindness of the teachers accounted for Jim's dislike of school. The cruelty of the teachers accounted for Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' unkindness accounted for Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' cruelty accounted for Jim's dislike of school. The unkindness of the teachers explained Jim's hating school. The cruelty of the teachers explained Jim's hating school. The teachers' unkindness explained Jim's hating school. The teachers' cruelty explained Jim's hating school. The unkindness of the teachers explained Jim's hatred of school. The cruelty of the teachers explained Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' unkindness explained Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' cruelty explained Jim's hatred of school. The unkindness of the teachers explained Jim's dislike of school. The cruelty of the teachers explained Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' unkindness explained Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' cruelty explained Jim's dislike of school. The unkindness of the teachers was responsible for Jim's hating school. The cruelty of the teachers was responsible for Jim's hating school. The teachers' unkindness was responsible for Jim's hating school. The teachers' cruelty was responsible for Jim's hating school. The unkindness of the teachers was responsible for Jim's hatred of school. The cruelty of the teachers was responsible for Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' unkindness was responsible for Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' cruelty was responsible for Jim's hatred of school. The unkindness of the teachers was responsible for Jim's dislike of school. The cruelty of the teachers was responsible for Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' unkindness was responsible for Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' cruelty was responsible for Jim's dislike of school. The unkindness of the teachers was behind Jim's hatred of school. The cruelty of the teachers was behind Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' unkindness was behind Jim's hatred of school. The teachers' cruelty was behind Jim's hatred of school. The unkindness of the teachers was behind Jim's dislike of school. The cruelty of the teachers was behind Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' unkindness was behind Jim's dislike of school. The teachers' cruelty was behind Jim's dislike of school. The unkindness of the teachers led Jim to hate school. The cruelty of the teachers led Jim to hate school. The teachers' unkindness led Jim to hate school. The teachers' cruelty led Jim to hate school. The unkindness of the teachers made Jim hate school. The cruelty of the teachers made Jim hate school. The teachers' unkindness made Jim hate school. The teachers' cruelty made Jim hate school. The unkindness of the teachers caused Jim to hate school. The cruelty of the teachers caused Jim to hate school. The teachers' unkindness caused Jim to hate school. The teachers' cruelty caused Jim to hate school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that was responsible for Jim's hating school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that was responsible for Jim's hating school. It was the teachers' unkindness that was responsible for Jim's hating school. It was the teachers' cruelty that was responsible for Jim's hating school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that was responsible for Jim's hatred of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that was responsible for Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' unkindness that was responsible for Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' cruelty that was responsible for Jim's hatred of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that was responsible for Jim's dislike of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that was responsible for Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' unkindness that was responsible for Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' cruelty that was responsible for Jim's dislike of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that was behind Jim's hatred of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that was behind Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' unkindness that was behind Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' cruelty that was behind Jim's hatred of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that was behind Jim's dislike of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that was behind Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' unkindness that was behind Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' cruelty that was behind Jim's dislike of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers which led Jim to hate school. It was the cruelty of the teachers which led Jim to hate school. It was the teachers' unkindness which led Jim to hate school. It was the teachers' cruelty which led Jim to hate school. It was the unkindness of the teachers which made Jim hate school. It was the cruelty of the teachers which made Jim hate school. It was the teachers' unkindness which made Jim hate school. It was the teachers' cruelty which made Jim hate school. It was the unkindness of the teachers which caused Jim to hate school. It was the cruelty of the teachers which caused Jim to hate school. It was the teachers' unkindness which caused Jim to hate school. It was the teachers' cruelty which caused Jim to hate school. It was the unkindness of the teachers which led to Jim's hating school. It was the cruelty of the teachers which led to Jim's hating school. It was the teachers' unkindness which led to Jim's hating school. It was the teachers' cruelty which led to Jim's hating school. It was the unkindness of the teachers which brought about Jim's hating school. It was the cruelty of the teachers which brought about Jim's hating school. It was the teachers' unkindness which brought about Jim's hating school. It was the teachers' cruelty which brought about Jim's hating school. It was the unkindness of the teachers which led to Jim's hatred of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers which led to Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' unkindness which led to Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' cruelty which led to Jim's hatred of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers which brought about Jim's hatred of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers which brought about Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' unkindness which brought about Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' cruelty which brought about Jim's hatred of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers which led to Jim's dislike of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers which led to Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' unkindness which led to Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' cruelty which led to Jim's dislike of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers which brought about Jim's dislike of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers which brought about Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' unkindness which brought about Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' cruelty which brought about Jim's dislike of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers which caused Jim's hatred of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers which caused Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' unkindness which caused Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' cruelty which caused Jim's hatred of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers which caused Jim's dislike of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers which caused Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' unkindness which caused Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' cruelty which caused Jim's dislike of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers which was the reason for Jim's hatred of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers which was the reason for Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' unkindness which was the reason for Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' cruelty which was the reason for Jim's hatred of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers which was the reason for Jim's dislike of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers which was the reason for Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' unkindness which was the reason for Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' cruelty which was the reason for Jim's dislike of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that led to Jim's hating school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that led to Jim's hating school. It was the teachers' unkindness that led to Jim's hating school. It was the teachers' cruelty that led to Jim's hating school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that brought about Jim's hating school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that brought about Jim's hating school. It was the teachers' unkindness that brought about Jim's hating school. It was the teachers' cruelty that brought about Jim's hating school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that led to Jim's hatred of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that led to Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' unkindness that led to Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' cruelty that led to Jim's hatred of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that brought about Jim's hatred of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that brought about Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' unkindness that brought about Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' cruelty that brought about Jim's hatred of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that led to Jim's dislike of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that led to Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' unkindness that led to Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' cruelty that led to Jim's dislike of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that brought about Jim's dislike of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that brought about Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' unkindness that brought about Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' cruelty that brought about Jim's dislike of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that caused Jim's hatred of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that caused Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' unkindness that caused Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' cruelty that caused Jim's hatred of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that caused Jim's dislike of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that caused Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' unkindness that caused Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' cruelty that caused Jim's dislike of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that was the reason for Jim's hatred of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that was the reason for Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' unkindness that was the reason for Jim's hatred of school. It was the teachers' cruelty that was the reason for Jim's hatred of school. It was the unkindness of the teachers that was the reason for Jim's dislike of school. It was the cruelty of the teachers that was the reason for Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' unkindness that was the reason for Jim's dislike of school. It was the teachers' cruelty that was the reason for Jim's dislike of school. What led to Jim's hating school was the unkindness of the teachers. What led to Jim's hating school was the cruelty of the teachers. What led to Jim's hating school was the teachers' unkindness. What led to Jim's hating school was the teachers' cruelty. What brought about Jim's hating school was the unkindness of the teachers. What brought about Jim's hating school was the cruelty of the teachers. What brought about Jim's hating school was the teachers' unkindness. What brought about Jim's hating school was the teachers' cruelty. What caused Jim's hating school was the unkindness of the teachers. What caused Jim's hating school was the cruelty of the teachers. What caused Jim's hating school was the teachers' unkindness. What caused Jim's hating school was the teachers' cruelty. What led to Jim's hatred of school was the unkindness of the teachers. What led to Jim's hatred of school was the cruelty of the teachers. What led to Jim's hatred of school was the teachers' unkindness. What led to Jim's hatred of school was the teachers' cruelty. What brought about Jim's hatred of school was the unkindness of the teachers. What brought about Jim's hatred of school was the cruelty of the teachers. What brought about Jim's hatred of school was the teachers' unkindness. What brought about Jim's hatred of school was the teachers' cruelty. What caused Jim's hatred of school was the unkindness of the teachers. What caused Jim's hatred of school was the cruelty of the teachers. What caused Jim's hatred of school was the teachers' unkindness. What caused Jim's hatred of school was the teachers' cruelty. What led to Jim's hating his school was the unkindness of the teachers. What led to Jim's hating his school was the cruelty of the teachers. What led to Jim's hating his school was the teachers' unkindness. What led to Jim's hating his school was the teachers' cruelty. What brought about Jim's hating his school was the unkindness of the teachers. What brought about Jim's hating his school was the cruelty of the teachers. What brought about Jim's hating his school was the teachers' unkindness. What brought about Jim's hating his school was the teachers' cruelty. What caused Jim's hating his school was the unkindness of the teachers. What caused Jim's hating his school was the cruelty of the teachers. What caused Jim's hating his school was the teachers' unkindness. What caused Jim's hating his school was the teachers' cruelty. What led to Jim's hatred of his school was the unkindness of the teachers. What led to Jim's hatred of his school was the cruelty of the teachers. What led to Jim's hatred of his school was the teachers' unkindness. What led to Jim's hatred of his school was the teachers' cruelty. What brought about Jim's hatred of his school was the unkindness of the teachers. What brought about Jim's hatred of his school was the cruelty of the teachers. What brought about Jim's hatred of his school was the teachers' unkindness. What brought about Jim's hatred of his school was the teachers' cruelty. What caused Jim's hatred of his school was the unkindness of the teachers. What caused Jim's hatred of his school was the cruelty of the teachers. What caused Jim's hatred of his school was the teachers' unkindness. What caused Jim's hatred of his school was the teachers' cruelty. What led to Jim's hating going to school was the unkindness of the teachers. What led to Jim's hating going to school was the cruelty of the teachers. What led to Jim's hating going to school was the teachers' unkindness. What led to Jim's hating going to school was the teachers' cruelty. What brought about Jim's hating going to school was the unkindness of the teachers. What brought about Jim's hating going to school was the cruelty of the teachers. What brought about Jim's hating going to school was the teachers' unkindness. What brought about Jim's hating going to school was the teachers' cruelty. What caused Jim's hating going to school was the unkindness of the teachers. What caused Jim's hating going to school was the cruelty of the teachers. What caused Jim's hating going to school was the teachers' unkindness. What caused Jim's hating going to school was the teachers' cruelty. What led to Jim's hatred of going to school was the unkindness of the teachers. What led to Jim's hatred of going to school was the cruelty of the teachers. What led to Jim's hatred of going to school was the teachers' unkindness. What led to Jim's hatred of going to school was the teachers' cruelty. What brought about Jim's hatred of going to school was the unkindness of the teachers. What brought about Jim's hatred of going to school was the cruelty of the teachers. What brought about Jim's hatred of going to school was the teachers' unkindness. What brought about Jim's hatred of going to school was the teachers' cruelty. What caused Jim's hatred of going to school was the unkindness of the teachers. What caused Jim's hatred of going to school was the cruelty of the teachers. What caused Jim's hatred of going to school was the teachers' unkindness. What caused Jim's hatred of going to school was the teachers' cruelty. Jim's hating school was due to the unkindness of the teachers. Jim's hating school was due to the cruelty of the teachers. Jim's hating school was due to the teachers' unkindness. Jim's hating school was due to the teachers' cruelty. Jim's hating school was caused by the unkindness of the teachers. Jim's hating school was caused by the cruelty of the teachers. Jim's hating school was caused by the teachers' unkindness. Jim's hating school was caused by the teachers' cruelty. Jim's hating school was the result of the unkindness of the teachers. Jim's hating school was the result of the cruelty of the teachers. Jim's hating school was the result of the teachers' unkindness. Jim's hating school was the result of the teachers' cruelty. Jim's hating school was the outcome of the unkindness of the teachers. Jim's hating school was the outcome of the cruelty of the teachers. Jim's hating school was the outcome of the teachers' unkindness. Jim's hating school was the outcome of the teachers' cruelty. Jim's hatred of school was due to the unkindness of the teachers. Jim's hatred of school was due to the cruelty of the teachers. Jim's hatred of school was due to the teachers' unkindness. Jim's hatred of school was due to the teachers' cruelty. Jim's hatred of school was caused by the unkindness of the teachers. Jim's hatred of school was caused by the cruelty of the teachers. Jim's hatred of school was caused by the teachers' unkindness. Jim's hatred of school was caused by the teachers' cruelty. Jim's hatred of school was the result of the unkindness of the teachers. Jim's hatred of school was the result of the cruelty of the teachers. Jim's hatred of school was the result of the teachers' unkindness. Jim's hatred of school was the result of the teachers' cruelty. Jim's hatred of school was the outcome of the unkindness of the teachers. Jim's hatred of school was the outcome of the cruelty of the teachers. Jim's hatred of school was the outcome of the teachers' unkindness. Jim's hatred of school was the outcome of the teachers' cruelty. Jim's dislike of school was due to the unkindness of the teachers. Jim's dislike of school was due to the cruelty of the teachers. Jim's dislike of school was due to the teachers' unkindness. Jim's dislike of school was due to the teachers' cruelty. Jim's dislike of school was caused by the unkindness of the teachers. Jim's dislike of school was caused by the cruelty of the teachers. Jim's dislike of school was caused by the teachers' unkindness. Jim's dislike of school was caused by the teachers' cruelty. Jim's dislike of school was the result of the unkindness of the teachers. Jim's dislike of school was the result of the cruelty of the teachers. Jim's dislike of school was the result of the teachers' unkindness. Jim's dislike of school was the result of the teachers' cruelty. Jim's dislike of school was the outcome of the unkindness of the teachers. Jim's dislike of school was the outcome of the cruelty of the teachers. Jim's dislike of school was the outcome of the teachers' unkindness. Jim's dislike of school was the outcome of the teachers' cruelty.

*ID adjectives Positive Neutral Negative .................. .................... ................... .................. .................... ................... .................. .................... ................... .................. .................... ................... .................. .................... ................... .................. .................... ................... .................. .................... ................... .................. .................... ................... Words: HUMID, FRIGID, INTREPID, SOLID, VIVID, SPLENDID, RIGID, RAPID, AVID, HYBRID, MORBID, LIQUID, PLACID, TIMID, ARID, INSIPID, HORRID, INVALID, CANDID, PUTRID, VALID, RABID, LUCID, ACID Solution: Positive Neutral Negative RAPID ACID RABID AVID HUMID HORRID LUCID SOLID TIMID PLACID LIQUID MORBID INTREPID INVALID PUTRID CANDID RIGID FRIGID SPLENDID HYBRID ARID VIVID VALID INSIPID